Typhoid Outbreak

1916

This is a tragic piece of history for the staff of the Elgin National Watch Company and as you'll read, not everything appears to be what it seems and the clincher that confirms it for myself is the article published in 1944 which seems to confirm that there was indeed a cover up of sorts. The following entries are press coverage as reported during the outbreak.

Initial Press Coverage

Typhoid on increase at Elgin.

August 23rd - Additional cases of infantile paralysis were reported at Waverly, Aurora, Forrest and Pekin. There are twenty cases of typhoid fever at Elgin in addition to the forty already reported. This information was sent to the state board of health today. The water supply at the Elgin watch factory is suspected1) Alton Evening Telegraph, August 23rd, 1916

Sixty cases of Typhoid

Springfield, Ill. August 23rd. There are twenty cases of typhoid fever at Elgin in addition to the forty cases already reported.

This information was contained in the preliminary report of Dr. E. S. Godfrey, state epidemiologist, the the state board of health today. Dr. Godfrey states it is his belief the cause of the outbreak lies in the water supply at the watch factory. State  board officials were very reticent today as to whether the sanitary engineering force would be sent to Elgin against the protect of Dr. A. L. Mann, city physician of Elgin.

When asked when the sanitary force would be sent, the board officials declared the time was not for publication. It is believed, however, the force was already on its way to Elgin and will make its examination quietly without apprising the city authorities of its presence. 

Dr. C. St. Clair Drake, secretary of the state board, got into communication by long distance telephone with officials here today. Though the officials refused to make know his orders, it is expected he is sending more men to Elgin.2)The Daily Gate City and Constitution Democrat, August 23rd, 1916

Carl Berggren, the jeweler at 406 East Lincoln Highway, today received an interesting letter from his brother at Elgin. The DeKalb man's brother is one of the employees of the watch factory at Elgin, but thus far has escaped from typhoid fever, which is sweeping the city, and especially the watch factory workers.

The letter states that all the employes of the factory have been vaccinated three times in the last 30 days and that the doctors do not tell them they are immune from the disease. According to the letter there are now over 175 cases at Elgin, and more breaking out each day. 3)The Daily Chronicle, September 15th, 1916

Typhoid Epidemic rages in Elgin.

Presence in Elgin of 175 cases of typhoid fever was revealed tonight. Together with the announcement that eleven deaths from the disease have been occurred since June when the epidemic began. 4)Herald Democrat, September 16th, 1916

In the early weeks of summer 1916 there was an unusual prevalence of inexplicable diarrhoea among the adult employees of the watch factory, then came the outbreak of Typhoid.

The watch factory had dual water supply from both the Elgin city and also the Fox river. It was found that the Fox river supply had mixed with the city's water supply and contaminated the drinking watch supply within the factory.

The company busied itself in relief. They employed physicians and nurses. They took care of every sick employee needing care. When the health authorities came in for investigation they gave them help. When the source of the pollution of the water supply was discovered it was corrected without hesitation. 

When the epidemic was at an end the company, on its own initiative, settled with the families of former employees and with the employes. I do not know how much the company paid out. I have heard that it was in excess of $100,000, and I can readily believe it. The employes are satisfied, the feeling is good, the company stands well in the community. Had the company try and resist the payment of claims they might have escaped. It is to their credit that they did not try to escape responsibility by legal technicality, by delays, expenditure of money, or in any other way.5)
How to Keep Well, By Dr. W. A. Evans, Published in the Chicago Daily Tribune, March 21st, 1917

The Story Changes

Up till this point, everything reported is positive and it appears that the Typhoid outbreak was due to the Fox river water supply being contaminated and mixing with the drinking water supply from the town.

We now have a different view of the events presented by the "The Day Book" which was an adless daily publication and therefore independent and had a little more freedom than the other press.

Elgin Watch Works Scene of Typhoid Epidemic

Twenty dead; 100 seriously ill.

Such is the toll of the typhoid fever among the employes of the Elgin Watch Co. 

The infection of typhoid broke out late last fall; it spread from employe to employe until more than 100 were ill.

An artesian well is blamed. The well is deep and of good flow, according to the company, and, it seems, should surely be pure.

A story is told by employes of the watch company of a prevalence of rats, especially near the mouth of the well. This has not yet been investigated, but it is thought by some that the waters of the well may have been infected by the rats.

The company is not attempting to hide the illness and deaths among its workers.  It would be of no use. All the little city of Elgin is talking about is the terrible toll death has collected from among the watch workers.

Peter J. Angsten of the Illinois State Industrial Board will go to Elgin Saturday and hold a public hearing in the courthouse at which is expected some startling facts regarding the watch works may be revealed.

The company itself asked for the hearing, which is primarily for the purpose of setting the amount of awards which the survivors of the dead and the families of the ill will receive.

The state lar provides what amounts shall be paid in case of illness or death. Criticism of the law has often been made on the ground that the amounts awarded are mostly scarcely enough to cover expenses. 

Families of the 20 dead will receive voluntary settlement from the company under the workman's compensation act totalling $50,000. Claims filed range from $1,650 to $3,5000 each. This is the largest settlement ever agreed to by corporation in this state.6)The Day Book, January 25th, 1917

Editor's Note - The following story of the typhoid epidemic in the plant of the Elgin National Watch Co. is an example of how the controlled press "covers up" advertising corporations. The Chicago papers in handling the story mention only the fact the Elgin company had "open-heartedly" offered through the state industrial board, to recompense the families of its employes who died "from a typhoid epidemic in the city of Elgin". They didn't mention the fact that bad drinking watch in the Elgin plant caused the epidemic.7)The Day Book, January 27th 1917

The epidemic broke June 1st and raged until mid-August, when nine victims were stricken in one day. It began to subside when the watch company on June 19th cut off the source of the deadly plague - the old artesian well - and gave its employes pure city water to drink.

Dr. Alban L. Mann, city physician of Elgin, made a report of conditions at the Elgin National Watch Co. factory on August 22nd. He attributed the epidemic to a "deadly sump" in the factory, In part he said:

"I found that the principal supply of water distributed to the institution, both for drinking and industrial purposes, came from an artesian well said to be approximately 2,000 feet deep; this supply was not pumped directly into the service mains of the different buildings and operating rooms as it should have been; but was pumped into a reservoir on Watch street, whence it was distributed to different points by gravity, a part being deflected to the National House for use in operating the elevator service there, after having served which purpose it was piped to a 'sump' or catch-basin about five feet deep, situated underneath the floor of the blacksmith's shop and accessible by means of a trapdoor though this floor this tank also apparently received the main supply from the reservoir, and from this catch basin was distributed to the various drinking founts and taps throughout the factory."

Dr. Mann said the surface of the water in the catch-basin was about a foot below the floor of the building and that fine dust and debris accumulated in this water, which was later drank by the employes. He also found that second supply of water was obtained directly from Fox river without filtration or purifying treatment of any kind. In conclusion, after examining the bacteria found in the water, Dr. Mann said "The result was astounding and clearly established the source of the typhoid infection in the water supply on the premises of the Elgin National Watch Co."

Elgin is a poor place to seek information about the plague that left 22 families in mourning and brought sorrow and, in many cases, poverty to the homes of 40 watch workers.

To tell tales out of the factory is to get fired, and Elgin is a town of practically one industry - watch making.

This is what Mrs. George Parkin of Grove avenue, a former employe of the company and wife of a  watchmaker, said:

"I was one of the first victims of the epidemic. We didn't know what the sickness was. The doctors didn't seem to know at first. Many of the boys and girls were stricken at their work tables; they would just topple over; then they would rush them off in taxicabs to the hospitals. It was awful to see the poor things staggering down the steps; we knew many of them would never come back."

"I was home, fortunately, when I was taken sick. I thought I was poisoned. Boils and sores broke out on my back and my face was covered with brown patches. Then the fever came. I had to give up work and go to the hospital. My husband was sick enough to go, too, but he just had to keep at work. I was in the hospital three months and two days. I have been home a couple of months, but I am still very weak and the doctor is still attending me."

"I was dropped from the payroll the day I reported sick. The company is still paying my doctor bills, but the loss of work makes it very hard for us."

A watchmaker named Cruse mourns the death of a daughter, who had been employed in the factory. The family is in destitute circumstances, some of his fellow workers say. Cruse asked the company for aid at Christmas. He was told he should be glad to have his doctors bills paid. He has not claimed damages for her death and he is not on the list of beneficiaries to be paid today.

When the employes of the Elgin company were being stricken down day after day the company announced it would pay all doctor bills, but Att'y Carberry said they made no offer of death damages until the cases were filed before the industrial board. Then they agreed to settle.

P.S. - The Elgin company paid no Christmas bonus. 8)The Day Book, January 27th 1917

9)The Watch Word, April 1944

 

 

In the April 1944 Watch Word edition, there is a small article on the Research Division which is has an image of the Chief Chemist (Tom Boswell)  holding a test tube which contains lactose, in which solution bacteria thrive when kept at blood temperature.

What has this to do with watchmaking ? Nothing directly. It is a protective measure taken for the health of employees. Since an outbreak of typhoid fever in 1916, Elgin's chemical Research department has carried out regular weekly tests of water used in the factory. 

There are two sources of water at the Main Plant, the city water system and the deep well from  which the drinking water flows. The latter system is designed for health and efficiency under the supervision of Engineer George Ensign.10)The Watch Word, April 1944

 

The Victims

This list was originally compiled by Barbara Schock from newspaper articles of the time. It was originally hosted online by the Elgin Genealogical Society and is no longer online. (You can find it via web.archive.org). All credits go to Barbara Schock and the Elgin Genealogical Society for this list. 

The list is from a notebook which is available at the Gail Borden Public Library and also the Elgin Area Historical Society, the notebooks are titled "Typhoid Epidemic of 1916 Index Elgin, Illinois". 

Typhoid Victims

Name Date Reported
Pauline Abts 13-Sep-1916
Mrs. Edna Ahlgren 6-Sep-1916
Violet Alwin 18-Aug-1916
Louise Archard 1-Sep-1916
Fred Arvedson 21-Aug-1916
Paul Baldwin 19-Aug-1916
Edwin Bauer 2-Sep-1916
Katherine Beckman 21-Aug-1916
Mrs. Emma Bell 30-Aug-1916
Elizabeth Bergesbauer 7-Sep-1916
Bertha Berggren 5-Sep-1916
Flora Blinks 13-Sep-1916
William Bode 2-Sep-1916
Mrs. Bohne 5-Sep-1916
Harold Bradley 30-Aug-1916
Mrs. Clifford Brandow 2-Sep-1916
Katherine Breen 29-Aug-1916
Morris Bristol 16-Aug-1916
Mary Britt 20-Sep-1916
Lettie Brown 11-Sep-1916
Mrs. Edward Burns 8-Jul-1916
Miss Ella/Edna Burns 18-Aug-1916
Mrs. A. Burzell 30-Aug-1916
Armand Calame 22-Aug-1916
Mrs. A. Canfield 30-Aug-1916
A.M. Carlson 24-Aug-1916
Aaron Carlson 23-Aug-1916
Mrs. August Christen 5-Sep-1916
Miss Althea Christie 19-Sep-1916
Mrs. Rotheny Clendenning 30-Aug-1916
Mrs. Nan Comstock 28-Aug-1916
A.M. Corron 24-Aug-1916
E.H. Cotton 24-Aug-1916
Daniel Cousten 22-Aug-1916
George Daniels 19-Aug-1916
Leon Daverkamp 21-Aug-1916
Virginia Day 13-Sep-1916
William Dearlove 25-Sep-1916
Ralph Delahanty 6-Sep-1916
Dorothy Dodds 22-Aug-1916
Mrs. A.V. Dolby 19-Aug-1916
Emma Duewel 30-Aug-1916
Mary Ebeling 19-Aug-1916
Louisa Ecklund 31-Aug-1916
Edna Elliott 19-Aug-1916
Elizabeth Eichorn 7-Sep-1916
Rose Erickson 25-Aug-1916
Rose Ernst 26-Aug-1916
Mrs. Nettie Etnyre 19-Sep-1916
Emma Factly 25-Aug-1916
Minnie Fairfield 25-Sep-1916
Margaret Fleming 5-Sep-1916
Carl Frey 30-Aug-1916
Miss Cora Gerberdin 18-Aug-1916
Rose Gill 21-Aug-1916
Earl Gilles 21-Aug-1916
Rozella Grant 23-Aug-1916
Harriett Groesser 12-Sep-1916
Mabel Groesser 21-Aug-1916
Rose Groesser 10-Jul-1916
Mrs. Edward Gromer 2-Sep-1916
George Hanslen 18-Aug-1916
Mrs. Fred Hanson 24-Aug-1916
Herbert Hanson 24-Aug-1916
Lillie Hanson 31-Aug-1916
Margaret Hanson 30-Aug-1916
Florence Hedges 19-Aug-1916
E.E. Heideman 19-Sep-1916
R.H. Heinz 16-Sep-1916
Lillie Henning 11-Sep-1916
Edna Herlihy 30-Aug-1916
Joseph W. Hill 19-Sep-1916
Laura Hill 19-Aug-1916
Mabel Hill 19-Aug-1916
Ida Hodges 22-Aug-1916
Fred Hohenstein 23-Aug-1916
William Holden 23-Aug-1916
Edward Holthusen 6-Sep-1916
Mrs. Matilda Huber 10-Jul-1916
Mrs. Carl Hulten 29-Aug-1916
Mrs. Timothy Jackman 14-Sep-1916
Verona Jacobs 7-Sep-1916
Charles Jahn 21-Aug-1916
Waker Jahn 22-Aug-1916
Elizabeth Jernberg 25-Aug-1916
Mrs. Howard Johnson 16-Oct-1916
Howard Johnson 28-Aug-1916
Leon Johnson 6-Sep-1916
Mabel Johnson 5-Sep-1916
Mrs. Andrew H. Jorgeson 21-Aug-1916
O. Joy 6-Sep-1916
Clara Kearns 16-Aug-1916
Helen Kirkpatrick 17-Aug-1916
Harry Klabunde 26-Aug-1916
Mrs. Chris Klingberg 11-Sep-1916
Eugene Klinger 28-Aug-1916
Emma Knickrehm 17-Aug-1916
Jacob Kray 13-Sep-1916
C.H. Knuse 11-Sep-1916
Myrtle Lagerstrom 22-Aug-1916
Joe Landis 16-Oct-1916
Leo Lange 20-Sep-1916
Leonard P. Lasher 21-Aug-1916
Chris Leitner 18-Aug-1916
Mrs. Carl Leming 11-Sep-1916
George Leucht 11-Sep-1916
Ethel Lewis 7-Sep-1916
Viola Libbie 5-Sep-1916
Ella Lind 16-Aug-1916
Thure Lind 16-Aug-1916
Will Lorenz 5-Sep-1916
Clarence Mapes 23-Aug-1916
Gertrude Marks 30-Aug-1916
Emma Markwardt 29-Aug-1916
Henry Markwardt 21-Aug-1916
Mrs. William McCarthy 22-Aug-1916
Agnes McManaman 11-Sep-1916
Ole Meling 5-Sep-1916
Bertha Midgley 24-Aug-1916
Ora Miller 25-Aug-1916
Earl J. Mockler 22-Aug-1916
C.H. Moore 2-Sep-1916
George Morton 16-Aug-1916
Fannie Moser 7-Sep-1916
Mrs. William Murray 22-Aug-1916
Henrietta Neindorff 1-Sep-1916
Augusta Nelson 5-Sep-1916
Clara Nelson 31-Aug-1916
Esther Nelson 11-Sep-1916
Florence Nelson 29-Aug-1916
George Nelson 19-Sep-1916
Harry Nelson 28-Sep-1916
Mrs. J.P. Nelson 11-Sep-1916
John P. Nelson 5-Sep-1916
Peter Nelson 31-Aug-1916
Katherine Nichols 21-Aug-1916
Mrs. John Oberst 30-Aug-1916
Richard Oemus 26-Sep-1916
Mrs. George Parkin 28-Aug-1916
Miss Pepple 16-Aug-1916
L.E. Perkins 11-Sep-1916
E.T. Peterson 12-Sep-1916
George E. Peterson 2-Sep-1916
Mrs. Patsy Phelan 24-Aug-1916
Mrs. Lillian Poole 21-Aug-1916
John Rahn 18-Sep-1916
Clara Rasmussen 21-Aug-1916
Frank Rasmussen 23-Aug-1916
Marie Rasmussen 11-Sep-1916
Bernard Rath 24-Aug-1916
Arnold Regman 25-Sep-1916
Mrs. Kitty Rierdon 17-Aug-1916
Mrs. Ida Riley 19-Aug-1916
Miss Amy B. Rogers 23-Aug-1916
George Rothfuss 17-Aug-1916
Gudrun Rovelstad 11-Sep-1916
Alfred Russell 20-Sep-1916
Miss Evelyn Ryan 6-Sep-1916
Elma Schatz 11-Sep-1916
Arabella Schmitz 22-Aug-1916
John Schultz 29-Aug-1916
Gertrude Seiger 25-Aug-1916
Theresa Shatters 24-Aug-1916
Fred E. Short 7-Sep-1916
Miss Bertie Smith 17-Aug-1916
Emma Smith 31-Aug-1916
Jessie Smith 11-Sep-1916
Raymond Smith 12-Sep-1916
Leon Soper 16-Oct-1916
May Stevenson 5-Sep-1916
Marie Stoos 2-Sep-1916
Lee Strong 29-Aug-1916
August Swanson 10-Jul-1916
Carl Swanson 23-Aug-1916
Robert Swartwout 16-Aug-1916
W.R. Switzer 28-Aug-1916
Marie Thiele 30-Aug-1916
Margaret Thomas 13-Sep-1916
Mrs. Millie Thornton 12-Sep-1916
Miss Thure 19-Aug-1916
Sarah Tiffany 17-Aug-1916
Martha Timm 23-Aug-1916
Miss Emma Voight 11-Sep-1916
Charles Warner 16-Aug-1916
Henry Weightman 30-Aug-1916
Benjamin Wendt 30-Aug-1916
Emma Wewetzer 26-Aug-1916
Lauretta White 30-Aug-1916
C.J. Wolff 28-Sep-1916
Miss Ella Wubbena 18-Aug-1916
Alexander Wylie 28-Aug-1916
Laura Yagle 11-Sep-1916
Josephine Young 23-Aug-1916
Mable Young 9-Sep-1916

 

Typhoid Deaths

Name Date of Death
Edith Anderson 17-Sep-1916
Bertha Bayless 27-Sep-1916
Martha Beth 8-Sep-1916
Emil Block 5-Jul-1916
Verna Brandow 18-Aug-1916
Minnie Drafal 17-Sep-1916
John Gorril 31-Aug-1916
Kathryn Gruno 27-Sep-1916
Charles Heldt 8-Oct-1916
Clara Keisler 19-Sep-1916
Henry W. Kalbunde 3-Sep-1916
Amanda Lange 29-Aug-1916
Clara Mick 7-Sep-1916
Agnes Nicoll 25-Sep-1916
James F. O'Rourke 23-Sep-1916
Chester Pease 28-Sep-1916
Wilda Pruden 11-Sep-1916
Esther Range 16-Aug-1916
Anna Marie Rasmussen 10-Oct-1916
Margaret Scherubble 16-Sep-1916
Carrie Schwake 1-Sep-1916
Elizabeth Simms 12-Dec-1916
Wilbur J. Smith 30-Sep-1916
Anna Syring 8-Sep-1916
Lucille Thornton 22-Sep-1916
Rufus Webb 21-Aug-1916

 

Summary

This is Elgin's darkest chapter in regards to the the welfare of their staff. While not required by law to pay for medical treatment, they did step up and cover all medical bills associated with the treatment of typhoid outbreak. They also paid out compensation for those that died. What they didn't do and were not obligated to do, was to pay wages during the time that it took staff to recover from the illness. While this doesn't sound like too bad a deal, I have found one staff member that took 3 years to recover and return to work. While all his medical bills were covered by the watch company, it failed to provide any financial assistance for his dependants and if both working parents were affected then the family was in a difficult situation on how to provide for the family.

It is clear that since weekly water testing was carried out on the well at the factory by the research department (the smartest people at the watch factory) that Elgin took it serious to avoid another outbreak from the well. What is of concern is that it clearly it is still in use years after it was stated that Elgin separated it from the water supply as part of the investigation of the outbreak.

The Pension fund and Relief fund would be established in 1918, quite possibly as a direct outcome of having to face the typhoid outbreak head on.

Contributors

The following people have be gracious enough to contribute further information to this article

Steven Banta - list of victims and deaths information

 

References   [ + ]

1. Alton Evening Telegraph, August 23rd, 1916
2. The Daily Gate City and Constitution Democrat, August 23rd, 1916
3. The Daily Chronicle, September 15th, 1916
4. Herald Democrat, September 16th, 1916
5. How to Keep Well, By Dr. W. A. Evans, Published in the Chicago Daily Tribune, March 21st, 1917
6. The Day Book, January 25th, 1917
7, 8. The Day Book, January 27th 1917
9, 10. The Watch Word, April 1944